The awkward gap between the physical and digital world

Everyone loves to write or at least everyone prefers to write than to type. It might not be as secure or safe as its digital counterpart, but it’s easy and enjoyable. Despite iPads and Surfaces, nothing beats pen and paper. Will it ever? I presume so, but I don’t see the technology in existence today. There are three hurdles that we have yet to overcome:

  • Texture – Writing on glass is uncomfortable and unnatural, whereas, paper provides and ideal amount of friction.
  • Ease – Although, taking an iPad around with you isn’t much harder than carrying around a notepad, what about when you forget your iPad or its out of charge?
  • Nostalgia – This is definitely the smallest hurdle and one I see dying out if the first to hurdles are solved, but people thought typing would replace writing and it hasn’t.

I am hopeful that these hurdles can be straddled. The second one I see being the most challenging. How can you make something as accessible and easy as paper? Perhaps augmented reality has a role here in providing virtual paper. What makes this particularly difficult is that this is not simply an engineering challenge, it is one that requires a huge shift in many people’s lives.

No matter the technology, the act of writing will need to feel natural. If augmented reality is not fully able to provide this than perhaps in the interim, a hybrid solution will be required. Like the transition from the combustion engine to electric.

Of course we want the perfect solution, but we also want it fairly quickly. The situation now is incredibly awkward. As I write this blog post, I am actually writing it on a sheet of paper. Now I am transcribing it because no technology that exists today is great enough to decipher my handwriting. But even if scanning technologies could decipher the undecipherable, scanning is awkward because it requires every little thought or image that you want to write down to be processed.

I have not yet mentioned reading, which despite what you may think, is done more with a real book than an ebook (in the UK at least)[1]. Even with newspapers which are largely read online, their readers would often prefer a physical paper (cost excluded). Although the problem here has different hurdles.

Ease is not a problem – finding reading material on the web is far easier than finding it in print, even if you own a book you have to remember to carry it around with you. Nostalgia and texture play much bigger roles. Reading is about connecting to the writing which is much easier to do with another one of your senses involved (touch).

A waiting game I guess it is.

1. The Guardian – March 2017 –

The Mac vs PC dilemma for a programmer Part 1: The problem that is Windows

Having recently started my Computer Science and Electronic degree. There was one thing that shocked me most: the ubiquity of Macs. Having no coding experience or knowledge, I had assumed that Macs were not for developing software. It turns out I was wrong. In fact, most people with programming experience (at my university) own and use a Mac. That’s not to say owning a Mac makes you a better programmer, but it does make your life a lot easier.

There are two problems that lead programmers to use a Mac:

The first problem is Windows. More specifically, the proprietary standards and procedures that Microsoft enforce in Windows. Installing C on Windows isn’t too difficult, but it requires more effort than a Unix OS like MacOS. Then you have to be careful of which version of Windows your program is compatible with. Windows has a lot of legacy support. Which is nice for companies that want to run insecure and slow 20 year old software, but incredibly inconvenient for programmers because you have to constantly be aware of the weird nuances that Windows has, but other operating systems do not. Installing SDL is far from a pain-free experience like it is on Unix.

Of course, this depends on what languages you use. Java for instance, is completely fine on Windows, comparable to Mac and Linux in every area.

This ultimately leads to a reliance on many workarounds. This is not good for a programmer who wants their program to compile and run on almost any machine.

It is now that we must bring up Linux. The saviour for Windows users who want to write programs! Well… not quite. Linux is far far far better than Windows for programming. Things work without workarounds and installing compilers and software is never more inconvenient than copying and pasting a few commands into terminal.

This leads to the second problem: Linux comes in many different flavours all with their own set of problems. Ubuntu, for example, the most Mac/Windows like distribution is ugly (IMO), and doesn’t support apps like Microsoft Word (without hours of messing about). This makes Linux great for programming, but inconvenient for everything else. Linux distributions are not designed in the same way as MacOS and Windows. MacOS and Windows have to appeal to a large market, that’s why they have to look fairly pretty, stay fairly consistent and provide adequate support. A Linux distribution does not have all of these goals. It may have some of them, for example Elementary OS focuses on aesthetics.

Ultimately, PC users usually have to stick with a dual boot. This is an inconvenience which can be detrimental to productivity. Having an OS that just works is something that I believe most programmers want, especially when working on mission critical projects.

Here we are, the solution: MacOS. It has all of the conveniences of Windows: all the standard software you need, a pretty layout and a consistent design. It also has the conveniences of Linux (as it is also built on Unix): easy installation of compilers and standards and no need for workarounds.

All seems well and good for Apple. However, in part 2 I will focus on hardware: the final crux of this problem.

Note: I was using a Windows PC until May of this year when I made the switch to a MacBook Pro 13″

The Post-PC era has yet to Arrive

In 2013, Tim Cook called this the post-PC era. But that hasn’t really turned out to be the case. The PC still stubbornly sticks around.

It certainly is true that the peak for the PC has past. PC sales (laptops and desktops) were greatest in 2011, and it has only declined since. But tablet sales have also declined, with their peak being only 2 years after that of the PC [statista]. The trend therefore, is clearly not that people are replacing their desktops and laptops for tablets. Instead, people are buying fewer of these devices year on year.

In truth, the tablet was never going to replace the PC. Despite what Apple (or its CEO) have tried to claim. (Microsoft claimed this before Apple, but it was clear that what Apple and Microsoft class as tablets are totally different.) And, I’ll be honest, I don’t understand why Tim Cook said that. He of all people must realise the unique opportunities the PC brings.

In a fairly recent statement, Cook said:

“The desktop is very strategic for us. It’s unique compared to the notebook because you can pack a lot more performance in a desktop — the largest screens, the most memory and storage, a greater variety of I/O, and fastest performance. So there are many different reasons why desktops are really important, and in some cases critical, to people.”


It seems that Cook did deliver on that promise just yesterday at WWDC, with a refresh of pretty much all of the Mac line-up (sorry Mac Mini), including the Mac Pro which we can assume will be replaced by the iMac Pro. So it would appear that Apple’s post-PC mentality was a fad, a blip in history, hastily to be forgotten. Just a reminder of that history:

Just before WWDC yesterday, the Mac Pro was over 3 years old (still technically is), the Mac Mini was over 2 years old (and terrible) (yeah, that’s still true), and the iMac hadn’t been updated since October 2015.

It’s always easy to take history out of context, so compare that to Apple’s previous record: the average refresh cycle for the iMac is 317 days compared to 460+ days since the last iMac before WWDC yesterday [MacRumors]. The Mac Pro also had a 3 year gap between the 2010 model and the 2013 trash can, but the 2010 model was future proofable making this gap less painful for many prosumers. So clearly, this was not normal Apple behaviour.

Apple also released a new iPad Pro and a slew of new features specifically for iOS on the iPad, bringing it more in line with the MacOS desktop. It’s clear that Apple sees a future with limited room for the PC, but for now the PC is very much part of the future.

Goodbye Wunderlist

It always seems to happen, Microsoft buys a small company that builds a really cool productivity app… and kills it. Sunrise took the bullet, now its Wunderlist’s turn. Whilst Wunderlist may may still be on the App Store, it’s just waiting to be pulled off. Microsoft have officially killed off Wunderlist, in favour their new app Microsoft To-Do.

To-Do is made by the same lot who made the Wunderlist we know and love, but there’s always something special about an app that isn’t in the grips of one of the big three. This isn’t just a case of supporting the underdog. There are benefits of using apps from the small guys:

  • they’re forced (with exceptions) to be multi-platform
  • they rely on their customers first (not shareholders)
  • they are (usually) easier to connect with

Thankfully, Microsoft are usually good at these three things, and Microsoft To-Do looks promising with Microsoft promising to implement the best of Wunderlist into To-Do. Once this happens, Wunderlist will be (officially) dead.

Why Microsoft chose to reinvent the wheel they had in their shed, I have no idea? And it seems ridiculous, but if you’re interested in that look here.

Wunderlist has been a go-to tool in my arsenal for over half a year, and a great one at that. I could continue using Wunderlist and eventually migrate to To-Do, but I have decided to use this opportunity to try something new for my to-do listing needs. So now I’m using Todoist. I may give my full thoughts after I’ve fully become acquainted to it.

I’ll miss you Wunderlist and the view you gave me of Fernsehturm.

GTD System v.2

Last year I wrote about my transition from Evernote to Apple Notes, Reminders and Google Drive. I will be honest, I have not been using that system for a while now. A few months after (circa September), I noticed a big hole in the system: Apple. Reminders and Notes are great apps, but they only work (offline at least) on Apple’s macOS and iOS.

The iOS part was fine, I use an iPhone, but I don’t use a mac. I was using Apple Notes and Reminders on my PC using It wasn’t perfect because it required some trickery with Chrome, but it was feasible and almost as good as the iOS apps. This was when the only PC I owned was my desktop. I used an iPad and iPhone whenever I was out.

In September, I started University which meant, I needed a laptop. And not because I wanted to type up notes in lectures or anything so trivial. I needed a laptop to write code (I study Computer Science). Remember earlier how I mentioned that Reminders and Notes work offline only on Apple’s OSes? Well, that was a problem. I need to be able to use my GTD system everywhere: on the train, plane, bus, ferry, wherever. These places often don’t have (useable) Wi-Fi.

I noticed this when trying to perform the Weekly Review on the train, the perfect location. A few hours to spare in relative quiet and comfort. I opened Reminders on my laptop and nothing. It doesn’t work because it’s a webpage not an app and the train WiFi just didn’t work at all.

I realised that this system was not going to be usable anymore. Before, it was fine, I only used Reminders and Notes offline on my iOS devices. However, I needed to replace Reminders and Notes with apps that work (offline) on Windows, iOS and other platforms for the future.

In a quest for universal Notes and Reminders apps I found Simplenote and Wunderlist.

Let’s start with Wunderlist: it’s brilliant. It has everything Reminders has apart from location reminders which I never used. It also allows for tags! Which is one major shortfall of Reminders. It also has a few other smart features all shown below.


Simplenote is not really much better than Apple Notes (apart from being multi-platform), but I couldn’t find anything much simpler that still featured folders/tags. However, Simplenote was no good either. It failed to do the most important thing of a notes app: sync properly. I couldn’t trust it so had to switch. I did research the problem, but even if I could fix it, Simplenote was a bit too simple. It has no formatting.

So the quest continued, and I stumbled upon a good old friend: Google Keep. I remember using Google Keep long before I came across GTD. In fact, I remember it being the alpha version of my GTD system (back then (2015), it didn’t have folders so I used it as a sort of reminders app).

Google Keep is remarkably similar to Apple Notes which I like. It has one disadvantage though which is organisation of notes, they’re not very neatly displayed and cannot be rearranged by title.

In all, my current system is not so different from the Apple system that came before it. It’s simply a more universal, platform-independent one which I hope will serve me well for years to come (switching systems is not particularly fun). In the next blog post I will cover Inbox, the email client I use to maintain inbox zero.


Almost all modern consumer electronics is comprised of two parts: hardware and software. We’ve always had hardware, but software is something that has exploded only in the last few decades. And as software has exploded, it has proceeded many of the roles that hardware used to handle.

Of course, hardware is needed for software, what good is software without any way of seeing it or more importantly writing it? But eventually, I see hardware as becoming so subtle that it ceases to be important to the user. The software will be all we interact with, but even that will be ethereal. The benefit of this will be that we will no longer be using ‘devices’, ‘devices’ will just do things for us.

Currently, if we need to find something out, we go through this process:

  1. How will I find this? A phone call? Email? Message? Google search?
  2. Carry that action out and hopefully it works out
  3. If it doesn’t, rinse and repeat

In the future, this process could be as simple as, asking a question. Instantaneously, the computer analyses your questions and carries out these steps for you. For lack of a better word, it’s ‘frictionless’. This kind of technology may be a few decades in the pipeline, but in the near future, many of the barriers we currently face will be removed through two simultaneous processes: the prevalence of software and the dissipation of hardware.

An example of this through the prevalence of software, is Apple’s handoff feature, which allows a user to switch from their Mac to their iPhone/iPad (or vice versa) without even thinking about it. This might not seem like an obvious example of the dissipation of hardware, but by allowing this coherent transfer between devices, the device becomes less important.

In terms of hardware, the almost complete disappearance of bezels on the Xiaomi Mix removes much of the mental barrier when using a phone. It makes watching movies and playing games more immersive, but more importantly you forget that you’re holding a phone.

Virtual and augmented reality will only accelerate this inevitable seamless future, in which technology, does things for you, rather than you doing things with technology. On the other hand, it could be argued that it is us doing things for the technology. If you thought people being slaves to their smartphone screens was bad, imagine people with their VR headsets, not even seeing the real world they live in.

Ultimately, we will embrace the new technology as is always the case. However, what will decide whether its impact is positive or not, is how we choose to use it. It has the power to connect us with more people in a more profound way, as did Facebook when it first arrived. It’s all a matter of how people adopt and use the technology.

The Best Keyboard in the World

Rarely is the statement “the best xxx in the world” used accurately and sincerely, but when it comes to the IBM Model M it is the only just way of describing it. The IBM Model M is to keyboards what Seinfeld is to sitcoms: the best one made and still the best one made (sorry to any Cheers, Friends or Frasier fans out there).

All this hyperbole I’m throwing around must now be explained. Instead of going over the history of the Model M and how it has reached its status to many as “the BEAST keyboard EVAR made” (translation: “best keyboard ever made”). I will give you 5 reasons one reason, the one true reason, why no Razer, Steelseries, WASD or DAS keyboard can beat IBM’s baby.


Look at any (non-membrane) keyboard nowadays and you will see plastic moulds called switches. You may even see different coloured ones or ones from different manufacturers. They all give a different feel. The most ubiquitous make of these switches is Cherry, who have more than 20 different types. Switches vary in stiffness and clickiness. The diagram below shows the mechanism of a Cherry MX Red switch.

Cherry MX Red Switch
Figure 1
If you want a good explanation of how these switches work click here. You will notice that these switches use springs. So, what is so special about the IBM Model M’s springs? They’re buckling springs. Which as the name suggest means that the spring doesn’t just compress, it bends. The diagram below illustrates how the Model M’s keys are actuated, whereas the diagram above of the Cherry MX Red switch shows a spring compresses uniformly. 

Figure 2
I honestly do not know how this makes such a difference, but the difference is so beautiful that I don’t even bother to ask why. Typing on a Model M is like typing on a typewriter, without all the nuisances. Like typing on a typewriter you will hear someone using this keyboard. It’s probably not suitable for shared offices or late-night writing, but otherwise the sound is part of the experience.

The IBM Model M will help you type faster. 

I believe this is not only because of the physical difference in the key design, but also in the experience of typing. The ping at the end of each keystroke is so satisfying that it motivates you to keep typing. I sometimes find myself typing things out twice instead of copying and pasting them because it’s such a pleasure to type on. Other keyboards (which I will admit I have not tried many) just don’t provide this. There’s also something charming about using a keyboard that was made in a time when most people had never heard the word “internet” and Apple was earning less than IBM (or most other companies for that fact). 

This does have the disadvantages of old technology being well, old. There are two things you will miss most from the Model M. Because Windows didn’t have a start menu when this keyboard was first made, there isn’t a Windows key present which is annoying for us power users. Though newer Unicomp models (which are mentioned below) do feature one, I would still recommend the original IBM/Lexmark made ones with some keyboard remapping, for example to remap Caps-Lock to the Windows key. USB, like the start menu is younger than the Model M so connectivity is provided by PS/2. This means that laptops will require an adapter (make sure it’s labelled ‘active’). Though PS-2 does provide a few benefits like not using up a USB port if your computer has a PS/2 port and there are technical advantages of PS/2 which this article highlights.

So where can I buy one? No, this blog post was not sponsored (I mean I did complain about the lack of a Windows key)

Finding a Model M can prove tricky. If you can find a source then you will not regret the time you invested in acquiring one. I will say however that despite my love for this keyboard, it isn’t worth £400 so don’t just buy the first one you see listed. I managed to get mine from Bluegoose systems, after a friendly email exchange, for £80 which includes postage. If you’re looking for more sources try some listed on this forum post. If you’re in the US or Canada, finding a source is considerably easier and if you want a brand new one you could always choose Unicomp who produce still Model Ms. However, they are not the same as the original Model Ms produced by IBM and Lexmark. If you’re elsewhere on the globe, I’m afraid I don’t have any links, but tying searching for “IBM Model M sources [your country]”. 


Figure 1: Animated Cherry MX images from Lethal Squirrel on

Figure 2: By Shaddim – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,